HttpClient

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本篇文章主要介绍了"HttpClient ",主要涉及到HttpClient 方面的内容,对于HttpClient 感兴趣的同学可以参考一下。

HttpClient

Http协议的重要性相信不用我多说了,HttpClient相比传统JDK自带的URLConnection,增加了易用性和灵活性(具体区别,日后我们再讨论),它不仅是客户端发送Http请求变得容易,而且也方便了开发人员测试接口(基于Http协议的),即提高了开发的效率,也方便提高代码的健壮性。因此熟练掌握HttpClient是很重要的必修内容,掌握HttpClient后,相信对于Http协议的了解会更加深入。
一、简介

HttpClient是Apache Jakarta Common下的子项目,用来提供高效的、最新的、功能丰富的支持HTTP协议的客户端编程工具包,并且它支持HTTP协议最新的版本和建议。HttpClient已经应用在很多的项目中,比如Apache Jakarta上很著名的另外两个开源项目Cactus和HTMLUnit都使用了HttpClient。

下载地址: http://hc.apache.org/downloads.cgi
二、特性

1. 基于标准、纯净的java语言。实现了Http1.0和Http1.1

2. 以可扩展的面向对象的结构实现了Http全部的方法(GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, HEAD, OPTIONS, and TRACE)。

3. 支持HTTPS协议。

4. 通过Http代理建立透明的连接。

5. 利用CONNECT方法通过Http代理建立隧道的https连接。

6. Basic, Digest, NTLMv1, NTLMv2, NTLM2 Session, SNPNEGO/Kerberos认证方案。

7. 插件式的自定义认证方案。

8. 便携可靠的套接字工厂使它更容易的使用第三方解决方案。

9. 连接管理器支持多线程应用。支持设置最大连接数,同时支持设置每个主机的最大连接数,发现并关闭过期的连接。

10. 自动处理Set-Cookie中的Cookie。

11. 插件式的自定义Cookie策略。

12. Request的输出流可以避免流中内容直接缓冲到socket服务器。

13. Response的输入流可以有效的从socket服务器直接读取相应内容。

14. 在http1.0和http1.1中利用KeepAlive保持持久连接。

15. 直接获取服务器发送的response code和 headers。

16. 设置连接超时的能力。

17. 实验性的支持http1.1 response caching。

18. 源代码基于Apache License 可免费获取。
三、使用方法

使用HttpClient发送请求、接收响应很简单,一般需要如下几步即可。

1. 创建HttpClient对象。

2. 创建请求方法的实例,并指定请求URL。如果需要发送GET请求,创建HttpGet对象;如果需要发送POST请求,创建HttpPost对象。

3. 如果需要发送请求参数,可调用HttpGet、HttpPost共同的setParams(HetpParams params)方法来添加请求参数;对于HttpPost对象而言,也可调用setEntity(HttpEntity entity)方法来设置请求参数。

4. 调用HttpClient对象的execute(HttpUriRequest request)发送请求,该方法返回一个HttpResponse。

5. 调用HttpResponse的getAllHeaders()、getHeaders(String name)等方法可获取服务器的响应头;调用HttpResponse的getEntity()方法可获取HttpEntity对象,该对象包装了服务器的响应内容。程序可通过该对象获取服务器的响应内容。

6. 释放连接。无论执行方法是否成功,都必须释放连接
四、实例
[java] view plain copy
在CODE上查看代码片派生到我的代码片

    package com.test;  
      
    import java.io.File;  
    import java.io.FileInputStream;  
    import java.io.IOException;  
    import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;  
    import java.security.KeyManagementException;  
    import java.security.KeyStore;  
    import java.security.KeyStoreException;  
    import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;  
    import java.security.cert.CertificateException;  
    import java.util.ArrayList;  
    import java.util.List;  
      
    import javax.net.ssl.SSLContext;  
      
    import org.apache.http.HttpEntity;  
    import org.apache.http.NameValuePair;  
    import org.apache.http.ParseException;  
    import org.apache.http.client.ClientProtocolException;  
    import org.apache.http.client.entity.UrlEncodedFormEntity;  
    import org.apache.http.client.methods.CloseableHttpResponse;  
    import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpGet;  
    import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpPost;  
    import org.apache.http.conn.ssl.SSLConnectionSocketFactory;  
    import org.apache.http.conn.ssl.SSLContexts;  
    import org.apache.http.conn.ssl.TrustSelfSignedStrategy;  
    import org.apache.http.entity.ContentType;  
    import org.apache.http.entity.mime.MultipartEntityBuilder;  
    import org.apache.http.entity.mime.content.FileBody;  
    import org.apache.http.entity.mime.content.StringBody;  
    import org.apache.http.impl.client.CloseableHttpClient;  
    import org.apache.http.impl.client.HttpClients;  
    import org.apache.http.message.BasicNameValuePair;  
    import org.apache.http.util.EntityUtils;  
    import org.junit.Test;  
      
    public class HttpClientTest {  
      
        @Test  
        public void jUnitTest() {  
            get();  
        }  
      
        /**
         * HttpClient连接SSL
         */  
        public void ssl() {  
            CloseableHttpClient httpclient = null;  
            try {  
                KeyStore trustStore = KeyStore.getInstance(KeyStore.getDefaultType());  
                FileInputStream instream = new FileInputStream(new File("d:\\tomcat.keystore"));  
                try {  
                    // 加载keyStore d:\\tomcat.keystore    
                    trustStore.load(instream, "123456".toCharArray());  
                } catch (CertificateException e) {  
                    e.printStackTrace();  
                } finally {  
                    try {  
                        instream.close();  
                    } catch (Exception ignore) {  
                    }  
                }  
                // 相信自己的CA和所有自签名的证书  
                SSLContext sslcontext = SSLContexts.custom().loadTrustMaterial(trustStore, new TrustSelfSignedStrategy()).build();  
                // 只允许使用TLSv1协议  
                SSLConnectionSocketFactory sslsf = new SSLConnectionSocketFactory(sslcontext, new String[] { "TLSv1" }, null,  
                        SSLConnectionSocketFactory.BROWSER_COMPATIBLE_HOSTNAME_VERIFIER);  
                httpclient = HttpClients.custom().setSSLSocketFactory(sslsf).build();  
                // 创建http请求(get方式)  
                HttpGet httpget = new HttpGet("https://localhost:8443/myDemo/Ajax/serivceJ.action");  
                System.out.println("executing request" + httpget.getRequestLine());  
                CloseableHttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httpget);  
                try {  
                    HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();  
                    System.out.println("----------------------------------------");  
                    System.out.println(response.getStatusLine());  
                    if (entity != null) {  
                        System.out.println("Response content length: " + entity.getContentLength());  
                        System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(entity));  
                        EntityUtils.consume(entity);  
                    }  
                } finally {  
                    response.close();  
                }  
            } catch (ParseException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (IOException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (KeyManagementException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (KeyStoreException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } finally {  
                if (httpclient != null) {  
                    try {  
                        httpclient.close();  
                    } catch (IOException e) {  
                        e.printStackTrace();  
                    }  
                }  
            }  
        }  
      
        /**
         * post方式提交表单(模拟用户登录请求)
         */  
        public void postForm() {  
            // 创建默认的httpClient实例.    
            CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();  
            // 创建httppost    
            HttpPost httppost = new HttpPost("http://localhost:8080/myDemo/Ajax/serivceJ.action");  
            // 创建参数队列    
            List<namevaluepair> formparams = new ArrayList<namevaluepair>();  
            formparams.add(new BasicNameValuePair("username", "admin"));  
            formparams.add(new BasicNameValuePair("password", "123456"));  
            UrlEncodedFormEntity uefEntity;  
            try {  
                uefEntity = new UrlEncodedFormEntity(formparams, "UTF-8");  
                httppost.setEntity(uefEntity);  
                System.out.println("executing request " + httppost.getURI());  
                CloseableHttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httppost);  
                try {  
                    HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();  
                    if (entity != null) {  
                        System.out.println("--------------------------------------");  
                        System.out.println("Response content: " + EntityUtils.toString(entity, "UTF-8"));  
                        System.out.println("--------------------------------------");  
                    }  
                } finally {  
                    response.close();  
                }  
            } catch (ClientProtocolException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {  
                e1.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (IOException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } finally {  
                // 关闭连接,释放资源    
                try {  
                    httpclient.close();  
                } catch (IOException e) {  
                    e.printStackTrace();  
                }  
            }  
        }  
      
        /**
         * 发送 post请求访问本地应用并根据传递参数不同返回不同结果
         */  
        public void post() {  
            // 创建默认的httpClient实例.    
            CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();  
            // 创建httppost    
            HttpPost httppost = new HttpPost("http://localhost:8080/myDemo/Ajax/serivceJ.action");  
            // 创建参数队列    
            List<namevaluepair> formparams = new ArrayList<namevaluepair>();  
            formparams.add(new BasicNameValuePair("type", "house"));  
            UrlEncodedFormEntity uefEntity;  
            try {  
                uefEntity = new UrlEncodedFormEntity(formparams, "UTF-8");  
                httppost.setEntity(uefEntity);  
                System.out.println("executing request " + httppost.getURI());  
                CloseableHttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httppost);  
                try {  
                    HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();  
                    if (entity != null) {  
                        System.out.println("--------------------------------------");  
                        System.out.println("Response content: " + EntityUtils.toString(entity, "UTF-8"));  
                        System.out.println("--------------------------------------");  
                    }  
                } finally {  
                    response.close();  
                }  
            } catch (ClientProtocolException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {  
                e1.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (IOException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } finally {  
                // 关闭连接,释放资源    
                try {  
                    httpclient.close();  
                } catch (IOException e) {  
                    e.printStackTrace();  
                }  
            }  
        }  
      
        /**
         * 发送 get请求
         */  
        public void get() {  
            CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();  
            try {  
                // 创建httpget.    
                HttpGet httpget = new HttpGet("http://www.baidu.com/");  
                System.out.println("executing request " + httpget.getURI());  
                // 执行get请求.    
                CloseableHttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httpget);  
                try {  
                    // 获取响应实体    
                    HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();  
                    System.out.println("--------------------------------------");  
                    // 打印响应状态    
                    System.out.println(response.getStatusLine());  
                    if (entity != null) {  
                        // 打印响应内容长度    
                        System.out.println("Response content length: " + entity.getContentLength());  
                        // 打印响应内容    
                        System.out.println("Response content: " + EntityUtils.toString(entity));  
                    }  
                    System.out.println("------------------------------------");  
                } finally {  
                    response.close();  
                }  
            } catch (ClientProtocolException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (ParseException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (IOException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } finally {  
                // 关闭连接,释放资源    
                try {  
                    httpclient.close();  
                } catch (IOException e) {  
                    e.printStackTrace();  
                }  
            }  
        }  
      
        /**
         * 上传文件
         */  
        public void upload() {  
            CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.createDefault();  
            try {  
                HttpPost httppost = new HttpPost("http://localhost:8080/myDemo/Ajax/serivceFile.action");  
      
                FileBody bin = new FileBody(new File("F:\\image\\sendpix0.jpg"));  
                StringBody comment = new StringBody("A binary file of some kind", ContentType.TEXT_PLAIN);  
      
                HttpEntity reqEntity = MultipartEntityBuilder.create().addPart("bin", bin).addPart("comment", comment).build();  
      
                httppost.setEntity(reqEntity);  
      
                System.out.println("executing request " + httppost.getRequestLine());  
                CloseableHttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httppost);  
                try {  
                    System.out.println("----------------------------------------");  
                    System.out.println(response.getStatusLine());  
                    HttpEntity resEntity = response.getEntity();  
                    if (resEntity != null) {  
                        System.out.println("Response content length: " + resEntity.getContentLength());  
                    }  
                    EntityUtils.consume(resEntity);  
                } finally {  
                    response.close();  
                }  
            } catch (ClientProtocolException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (IOException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } finally {  
                try {  
                    httpclient.close();  
                } catch (IOException e) {  
                    e.printStackTrace();  
                }  
            }  
        }  
    }</namevaluepair></namevaluepair></namevaluepair></namevaluepair>

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